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Applications of Math

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Abacus History, Use, and More (Luis Fernandes): Award winning site by Luis Fernandes; Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Historical timeline, early counting boards, various styles of the abacus. Java applet simulates real time use of the abacus. Links to other information.

Alternative fuels

Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells: Description of PEM Fuel Cells and their application. Site created and maintained by

Applications of math

Academic Info about Mathematics: Academic Info is a free online education resource center for students (and other researchers). Created by Mike Madin. On the site, open “more” and scroll down to math hyperlinks.
Applications to technology: Matrix of applications of various types of math to different technology fields.
Applied Math and Science Education Repository: This site is funded by the National Science Foundation and provides information about applied math and science resources in an easy-to-use format. 
Australian Defense Force Academy Applied Mathematics Modelling: This group undertakes research in the application of mathematical methods to model real-world systems, including those that are directly relevant to industry.
C.I.E.S.E. Projects: The Center for Innovation in Engineering and Science Education.Five projects which relate math to the world. Links are provided to the home pages.
Daily Life: Daily Life Applications of Math
Figurethis: Examples of how math is used in daily life. The site engages students in various problem sets and invites families to participate in a "family corner."
The Futures Channel: free online video "micro-documentaries" that introduce students to real-world concepts. Site address;
How Mathematics is Used in the Workplace: MAA site that addresses the question of how mathematics is used in the workplace.
Math Archives on a variety of topics: Authors: Earl Fife or Larry Husch.
Math Forum: Applications of Math: Math Forum at Drexel. Links to applications in the Social Sciences, Professional, Science, Humanities, and Sports fields.
Math Matters (SIAM Site): Math Matters, Apply It! is an applied mathematics awareness campaign, created for anyone who wants to know more about the mathematics behind everyday life. Maintained by SIAM.
Math Tricks (by Steven Pomeroy): How math can be applied to real-world situations. Site by Steven Pomeroy includes many categories: math tricks, fractals,art, geometry,real life math and much more.
Museum of Mathematics: Museum in New York dedicated to mathematics delivering programs for students, teachers, and the public to increase appreciation of mathematics. Website includes links to Math Encounters videos, “fun activities”, and travelling math exhibits.
PBS TeacherSource: PBS lessons and activities, select a grade range." Then select a topic. Also find "Free, searchable online video and lesson plans. Select a grade range: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12.
Practical Uses of Math and Science: PUMAS: PUMAS is a collection of one-page examples of how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes can be used in interesting settings, including everyday life.
Use of Math in Different Fields (SIAM Site): Role of mathematics in industry based on 1996 survey. Site assembled by SIAM.


A Moebius Building for CS at UC Berkeley: This is a study of the design process carried out in the context of a pair of courses taught by Yehuda Kalay, and a course taught by Carlo H. Sequin during Spring 1995.
Drexel Math Forum: Architecture: Links to several sites relating math and design specifically to architecture.
Fibonacci Numbers and The Golden Section in Art, Architecture and Music: Introduction to the use of Fibonacci numbers in architecture and other areas. Excellent site created and maintained by Dr Ron Knott, Ph.D, M.Sc, B.Sc (Pure Maths),former Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics and Computing Sciences,University of Surrey
Mathematics and Architecture: Article by: J J O´Connor and E F Robertson. Part of The MacTutor History at University of St Andrews, Scotland.
Sir Christopher Wren: Astronomer, mathematician, architect, and more. Biography of the architect for St Paul´s Cathedral and many other buildings. Site maintained by School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland.
The Golden Sector in Architecture: Written by Dr Ron Knott, former Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics and Computing Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK .


Art Gallery Theorem: "Also called Chvátal´s art gallery theorem. If the walls of an art gallery are made up of straight line segments, then the entire gallery can always be supervised by watchmen placed in corners."
Charles Perry Sculptures, Jewelry, Puzzles: Mathematically inspired art by Charles Perry. Site has photos organized by shapes and material. There are no descriptions of the mathematics behind the works.
Escher: History of: History of Escher with examples of his art. Site created and maintained by School of Mathematics and Statistics.
Exploratorium: Museum of science, art, and human perception. Exhibits change regularly.
Helaman Ferguson Sculpture: Gallery of artwork of artist Helaman Ferguson. Click on thumbnail and display both a larger picture and the mathematical equation used to create the shape.
Patterns (Dartmouth Course): Applications of symmetry in mandalas, nature, sketches, etc. Site shows many artworks as examples. Lessons accompany each section.


NASA Virtual SkiesApplications of mathematics to Aeronautics, Airport Design, Air Traffic Management, Communication, Navigation, Flight Delays, and Weather. Teacher and student versions of activity sheets.

Sky and Telescope: Monthly Sky Highlights, Special Sky Events, Satellite Observings, Moon and Planets information.

Stardate: Information about tonight´s sky. Also other resources for students and teachers. Great site. Maintained by the McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas at Austin.



Mathematical Models For Candle Balloon Design: Article about the "concept of a Theoretical Universal Balloon. Here, "Virtual Balloons" are imagined to exist mathematically. They can be any size. They can be powered by any number of candles.
Why do helium-filled balloons float?: "This is an application of "Archimedes´ Principle" which states that a body immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced...”


Interest and Exponential Growth: Formula and explanations for Compound Interest, Simplified Compound Interest, Continuous Compound Interest, Loan Balance. Part of
Money Math: Lessons for Life: Money Math is a four-lesson curriculum supplement for middle school math classes using real-life examples from personal finance. Part of U.S. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of the Public Debt.
The Mint (Northwestern Mutual Foundation): Northwestern Mutual with the National Council on Economic Education created this site. It provides tools to help parents as well as educators teach children to manage money and develop financial habits.
What is a dollar worth?: Calculator based on Consumer Price Index (CPI). Figure change in prices over time. Links to CPI since 1913. Created by Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.


Basketball Shot: Simulated: Simulate basketball shot. Figure angle, height, speed. Part of "Fear of Physics" site.
Motion of Basketball: UIUC Excel Data: Study of the motion of a basketball to find the best angle or the best velocity the ball should be thrown so that it will go in the basket from the free throw line.


Mathematical Biology at UBC: Website for the Mathematical Biology Group at University of British Columbia.
The Centre for Mathematical Biology (CMB) at the University of Oxford: The Centre for Mathematical Biology (CMB) at the University of Oxford is part of the Mathematical Institute...designed specifically to foster interdisciplinary research in the area.
Theoretical and Mathematical Biology Sites: Site created and maintained by Webmaster: Bob Planqué of the Dutch Society for Theoretical Biology.

Birth & death rates

MacTutor: Information about mathematicians who were born (or died) on this date in history.
Math People Birth dates: Complete list of birthdays of mathematicians throughout the year. Just click on a given date and the birth dates are displayed for that day.

Body mathematics

Biomechanical modelling for keyhole surgery simulations: Abstract. To access full PDF article, select link at right when you arrive at the site. Penny J. Davies, Fiona J. Carter, David G. Roxburgh, and Alfred Cuschieri, “Mathematical Modelling for Keyhole Surgery Simulations: Spleen Capsule as an Elastic Membrabe,” Journal of Theoretical Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 247-262, 1999. doi:10.1080/10273669908833024
Introduction to Fracture Mechanics by David Roylance: Article on the mathematics of bone fractures. Written by David Roylance of MIT.
Lawrence Schovanec Body Mechanics Research Bibliography: Select RESEARCH and choose from list of publications, presentations, research area. Dr. Lawrence Schovanec (Texas Tech University) research area applies mathematics to bio-mechanics.
University of Waterloo Bio-mechanics Research Applied Mathematics: "Our goal is to use mathematics to understand and predict functions of the human body. Specific areas of interest are: Hydrocephalus, Oncology, Blood Cell Behavior, Brain Trauma, and Syringomyelia..."


Algebra Puzzle with Calendar: Choose 4 days from the calendar that form a square of numbers. Ask someone to sum the numbers of the four days. Using algebra, you can tell what the four days are. See site for more information.
Aztec Calendar: Learn about the ancient Aztec calendar. This work is © by René Voorburg, William Horden and Marta Ramirez.
Calendar for any Year: Site displays current year. Scroll down the site for holidays and observances. Continue scrolling to select calendar for any year: past, present, future. Also scroll down to links to World Clock, Year Countdown and more.
Calendars Through the Ages: History of the development and examples of calendars in many cultures. This exhibit is a public service of the Institute for Dynamic Educational Advancement (IDEA).The primary contributor is Claus Tøndering, based in Denmark.
Calendars: variety of: History and display of calendars. Included are: Christian, Jewish, Islamic, Chinese, Mayan, French, and others.
Leap Year: History of the Leap Year.

Careers in math

Careers in Applied Math: SIAM: Brochure illustrating careers that use math and the people who work in them. Part of SIAM website.
Careers in Applied Mathematics (SIAM): Job descriptions, opportunities, prospects. Site sponsored by SIAM.
Careers in Math (AWM): Links to numerous career resources associated with Math and Science. Sponsored by Association for Women in Mathematics.
Careers in the Mathematical Sciences: Math in government and industry. Applications. Site sponsored by AMS, MAA, SIAM.
Careers in math (SIAM): Information about many careers in applied mathematics. Scroll down site for links to business and industry´s use of math. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics site.
Careers in mathematics. SIAM Tables of Information: Importance of math in jobs, numbers of mathematicians who work in industry, math skills in industry more. Collection of tables of information. Part of SIAM website.
Examining How Mathematics is Used in the Workplace: MAA Research site that investigates the use of math in various occupations. Written for MAA by Annie and John Selden. Numerous links organized by fields in which mathematics is required. Fields listed include, for example, Academic (pure), Academic (applied), Banking, Biology, Computer Technology, Finance, Insurance, Teaching (12-19 year old students), Statistics.
Math Matters Campaign: SIAM: Math Matters, Apply It! is an applied mathematics awareness campaign, created for anyone who wants to know more about the mathematics behind everyday life and the technologies we encounter.
Woodrow Wilson Leadership Program in STEM Teaching: The Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship seeks to attract talented, committed individuals with backgrounds in the STEM fields—science, technology, engineering, and mathematics—into teaching in high-need secondary schools in Georgia, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and New Jersey.
WorkSource Northwest: WorkSource Northwest is a network of organizations and "one-stop" Career Centers that offer a variety of services to businesses and job seekers.


Chaos in the Chua circuit by SiepWeiland: “Abstract: The Chua circuit is among the simplest non-linear circuits that shows most complex dynamical behavior, including chaos. In this project by Siep Weiland, we analyze this electrical circuit, simulate it, build it if you like, and make measurements on a true system.” Article archived at Eindhoven University of Technology.
Definition of Chaos: Brief article on Wolfram MathWorld site that discusses difficulty of defining Chaos.
Dynamical Systems and Technology Project: Chaos and Fractals: A Java enabled browser is required. Several JAVA Applets developed for use to explore chaos and fractals and to accompany "A Toolkit of Dynamics Activities" published by Key Curriculum Press.
Wolfram Demonstration Projects on Chaos: Interactive dynamic visual projects built with Mathematica.


Cartoons on the site Simon Math Cartoons listed by Simon Singh, PhD in particle physics. Former director and producer with the BBC TV Science Unit.
Math Cartoons at Cartoon sites picked by Deb Russell, Guide to Mathematics. Artwork on the websites is copyrighted.
S. Harris Math Cartoons: Cartoons Copyright © 2006 by Sidney Harris.

Complex numbers applications

Complex Numbers : Wolfram Demonstration Project: Interactive dynamic visual projects built with Mathematica.
Requires free Wolfram CDF Player download.
Drexel Math Forum - Dr. Math: Response to student inquiries about Applications of Complex Numbers.
Univ. of Toronto Math Network: Examples of applications taken from the question corner of the Toronto Math Network page.
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Complex Variables.”


Counting contra dances: Presentation at the annual meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, by Larry Copes a mathematics education consultant in St. Paul, Minn. Article illustrates all eight symmetries of a square–the group D4.
Math Dance: Here is a collection of activities and resources you can use in your classroom to teach both mathematics and dance.
Mathematics and Dance Bibliography: Bibliography from the article Math Dance with Dr. Schaffer and Mr. Stern • © 2001 Schaffer, Stern, Kim.
Mathematics in the World of Dance: A study by Katarzyna Wasilewska (Mathematics Department, University of Southern California) of the many connections and similarities between mathematics and dance.
MATRICES IN MOTION (Crystal Menninga): An exploration of contra dance patterns interpreted through performance-oriented dance.This thesis studies the patterns found in contra dance, representable by manipulations of 2x2 matrices, and investigates their use onstage in performance dance idioms.

The number "e"

About e (Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math): What is e? Who first used e? How do you find it? How many digits does it have?. Part of Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math. Drexler University.
E (mathematical constant): Several examples of the application of "e". From the site BookRags.
The number e: History of "e" from the site
University of Toronto: Answers the question: "Does the number e have any real physical meaning, or is it just a mathematical convenience?"


Map of Today’s Earthquakes: USGS map of Earthquakes in 1 Day of Magnitude 2.5+ Worldwide.
Math and Earthquakes: USGS Article describing the math behind measuring earth quakes.
Seismic waves: Interactive site that shows how P and S waves work when an earthquake occurs.
Seismic Waves and Earthquakes – A Mathematical Overview: 28 slide description the mathematical model and some mathematical techniques to deal with such waves in some interesting situations. Prepared by Fiazud Din Zaman, Department of Mathematical Sciences. King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals; Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
The Latest Mathematical Models of Earthquake Ground Motion: Article on latest mathematical models of ground motion during earthquakes: the azimuth dependent mathematical model and the mathematical model based on radius vectors. Written by Snezana Gjorgji Stamatovska of the University-Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (UKIM-IZIIS), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.

Egyptian mathematics

Ancient Egyptian Numbers: Enter a number from 1 to 9999999 to see how the Egyptians would have written it, or enter a number to count with. Site created and copyrighted by Jo Edkins 2006.
Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics: Extensive coverage of Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics. Site created and maintained by School of Mathematics and Statistics at University of St. Andrews, Scotland.
Cambridge Egyptology Site: "This page is set up with the kind assistance of the Newton Institute in the University of Cambridge to provide a World Wide Web resource for Egyptological information"
Egyptian Math: Part of the site Discovering Egypt created by Mark Millmore. Mathematical information about the pyramids, Egyptian mathematics, Hieroglyphic Writing and more.
Open Learning: Egyptian Math Unit: This unit is from The Open University archives and is an adapted extract from Topics in the history of mathematics (MA290) which is no longer in presentation.
The Ancient Egyptian Number System: Historical essay by Caroline Seawright about the use of mathematics in Ancient Egypt. Info about pyramids, cubics, more.


Elements of AC Electricity: AC Waveforms, Inductance, Inductor Circuits, more. Author and Content Provider: David L. Heiserman. Publisher: SweetHaven Publishing Services.
Math in Technology Table: Electricity: Math in technology table. British Columbia Institute of Technology. Scroll down to electrical applications.


ASEE: American Society for Engineering Education


Engineering from IEEE Spectrum: IEEE Spectrum magazine is a monthly magazine that explores future technology trends and the impact of those trends on society and business.

Civil Engineering FAQs
Frequently asked questions about civil engineering and civil engineering technology. Includes links to Sources of Information and student associations. Site maintained by

Math Needed for Engineering: Opinion: Opinion of Ronald B. Standler, Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering,The Pennsylvania State University 2000.
Online Engineering Degree Programs List: Related Engineering Degrees, universities, average salaries, career pathways.
University of Washington Engineering: Link to University of Washington Engineering homepage. Information includes: news and events calendar, research, programs of study, admission requirements, and scholarships.
Washington State University Engineering and Architecture: Link to Washington State University Engineering and Architecture homepage. Information includes: undergraduate and graduate programs, admission requirements, research, scholarships, and student perspectives.
Western Washington University Engineering Technology: Homepage of Western Washington University Engineering Technology programs. Site includes links to electronics engineering technology, manufacturing engineering technology, plastics engineering technology, industrial design, and vehicle research. Assessment and student project information is also accessible.

Environmental applications

Earth Math (NASA): A Brief Mathematical Guide to Earth Science and Climate Change.

This collection of activities is based on a weekly series of space science problems distributed to thousands of teachers during the 2009-2010 school year.

Energy Infobooks: Energy Infobooks provide information about each of the nation's energy resources, new technologies, and the use and conservation of energy. They are organized by Primary, Elementary, Intermediate, and Secondary grade levels. Requires PDF reader.
Science, Math, and Environment Projects: Science, Math, and Environment Projects on the Connect All Schools website. Lessons from a variety of sites world-wide.


International Study Group on Ethnomathematics: Definition of ethnomathematics. Organization dedicated to study of and dissemination about ethnomathematics.
Math History Links: Ancients and Cultures Page: Links to sites about Ancient Babylonian, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Greek, Mayan, Indian, Chinese, Incan, and Arabic mathematics.


Exponential Growth and Decay (Carleton College): Formula, teaching materials, examples. Part of Carleton College Science Education Resource Center.
Real world uses of exponents? (Ask Dr. Math): Examples provided by "Doctor Mark" of The Math Forum at Drexler University.
Interest and Exponential Growth Formula: Formula used in interest and exponential growth. From; formerly "Dave´s Math Tables
Powers of 10: Click on image of 10^(-16) then continue clicking to visualize powers of 10. Copyright © 2005 by Bruce Bryson.

Fibonacci numbers

A brief introduction to the Fibonacci numbers by David Dailey: David Dailey is an associate professor of Computer Science at Slippery Rock University. Excellent introduction with examples from "unexpected places (e.g., cornfields, seashells, Greek monuments)".
Fibonacci Numbers (Laura Smoller´s site): Examples of Fibonacci numbers in nature by Laura Smoller, UALR Department of History. Links to other sites related to Fibonacchi Numbers and the Golden Rectangle.
Fibonacci Numbers and Nature: Site created and maintained by Dr Ron Knott, former Lecturer in the Department of Mathematics and Computing Sciences,University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK .
Fibonacci Numbers in Nature: Photographic evidence of Fibonacci numbers in nature. Site maintained by
Life and Numbers of Fibonacci by R.Knott, D.A.Quinney and PASS Maths: History of Fibonacci, the Fibonacci sequence, and its place in mathematics.
Phyllotaxis: Interactive Site for Mathematical Study of Plant Pattern Formation: This site was originally created at Smith College by a team of students under the supervision of professors Pau Atela and Christophe Golé of the mathematics department. Pau Atela or Christophe Golé are the directors of this project.
Plant Spirals Exhibit: Created at Smith College in collaboration with Botanical Gardens, Academic Consultants, Designers, and Engineers worldwide.


Financial Literacy Programs: Large list of hyperlinks to free and fee financial education programs, curricula, and lessons with grade levels designated. Part of Stockton College website.
Financial Mathematics (SIAM): The SIAM Journal on Financial Mathematics addresses theoretical developments in financial mathematics as well as breakthroughs in the computational challenges they encompass. Free access to SIFIN through 2010.


Investment and Finance (Dr. Math): Links to lessons and informative investment and finance sites. Part of Dr. Math and maintained by The Math Forum Drexel University.

NYU-Courant Math Finance Program: Information about the Math Finance Program at The Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University.
Stock Markets: Canadian Stock Exchange: Canadian Stock Exchange (TSX Group).
Stock Markets: London Exchange: London Stock Exchange.
Stock Markets: NASDAQ Info: Access to NASDAQ information.
Stock Markets: New York Stock Exchange "NYSE": Access to NYSE information.

Fire fighting

FARSITE: Fire Area Forest Service by Mark A. Finney: This paper reports on the structure of a fire growth simulation model, FARSITE, and its performance under simplified test conditions.Mark A. Finney is a Research Scientist with Systems for Environmental Management in Missoula, MT.
Fire Models: Fire behavior and fire danger systems assembled in cooperation with U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Department of Interior, Joint Fire Science Program, Systems for Environmental Management, Center for Environmental Management of Military Lands, Colorado State University , and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Brigham Young University.
Mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wild-land fires: Richard C. Rothermel. A mathematical model for predicting fire spread in wild-land fires. USDA Forest Service Research Paper INT-115, 1972.
Wildfire Visualizations: Scientists at National Center for Atmospheric Research have coupled numerical regional weather simulations with fire spread models to advance our understanding of wildfires, creating flat land, hill, and universal visualizations.


Chaos and Fractals: Part of Math Explorers' Club site (outreach program at Cornell University). Six-part module is intended as an introduction to chaos, fractals, and dynamical systems for high schoolers.
Fractal Encounter: Fractal Images created by G.W.F. Albrecht. Scroll down the site to obtain formula, links to Fractal Music, animated fractals, and more. Beautiful site.
Fractals in Nature: Photos and discussion of fractals found in nature. Site is part of Original Beauty hosted by
Fractals Unit for Elementary and Middle School: Why study fractals? What are fractals? How to make fractals. More. Copyright 1996-2004 by Cynthia Lanius
Will Webber Fractal Mini-Course: Mini-course created as part of NWMI projects. Written and maintained by Dr. William Webber. Fractal curves, Tower of Hanoi, Abacabadabacaba, and more. Great site for all aspects of fractals.


Recurrence Intervals: Recurrence intervals refer to the past occurrence of random events. Article written by Dr. Eric M. Baer, Geology Program, Highline Community College. Applications to flooding and earthquakes.


Elementary School Grades 3-5 Geometry: Public Broadcasting site. Lesson plans and activities.
Elementary School Grades K-2 Geometry: Public Broadcasting site for geometry resources.
Gallery of Interactive Geometry: Interactive materials for visually exploring geometrical concepts. Very interactive. Developed as part of The Geometry Center at the University of Minnesota.
Geometry Center Home Page: The Geometry Center is a mathematics research and education center at the University of Minnesota.
Geometry from the Land of the Incas: Geometry facts, theorems, some proofs. Very colorful format. Music is loud when you reach the site, so you may wish to turn down the volume.
Geometry Junkyard: "These pages contain usenet clippings, web pointers, lecture notes, research excerpts, papers, abstracts, programs, problems, and other stuff related to discrete and computational geometry.”
High School Geometry: Lesson plans and activities including exploration of shapes, proof of Pythagorean theorem, scaling the pyramids, the geometry of lenses, the math of music and more.
Non-Euclidean Geometry Online: a Guide to Resources by Mircea Pitici (June 2008): Guide through the many online resources on non-Euclidean geometry that can be used in the classroom.
Middle School Geometry: Lesson plans and activities including truss strength, dome geometry, quilts, and more.
Symmetry and Tessellations: Thirty activities based on hyperlinks to web resources. Activities begin with "What is Mathematics?" and progress through Pythagoras´ observations of music, patterns on Ukrainian Easter eggs, symmetry in the alphabet, butterflies, and more.

Grade point average (GPA)

Calculate your GPA: How to calculate your grade point average.


Create a Graph: Part of the National Center for Educational Statistics Students´ Classroom. Users may create their own graphs using their own data or they may see an example of a particular type of graph.
Graphing a Linear Inequality: West Texas A&M University: Step by step tutorial explaining how to graph a linear inequality. Site created and maintained by West Texas A&M University.
Live Math Programs: 2D and 3D graphing programs designed by Dr. William Webber of Whatcom Community College.
NCTM Illuminations: Graphing: This resource allows students to enter data to construct a selected graph: area, bar, line, or pie. Students can enter their own data or use sample data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (which hosts this site).
Reading Graphs: West Texas A&M University: Tutorial explaining how to read graphs. Aimed at Beginning Algebra students. Site created and maintained by West Texas A&M University.


Baldwin Wallace College: Extensive listing of links to web material related to the History of Mathematics.
Biographies of Mathematicians: Links to biographical information about mathematicians. Maintained by David R. Wilkins, School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin.
British Society for the History of Mathematics: Links to information about the history of mathematics, biographies, online books, bibliographies, educational materials. Selected and annotated by June Barrow-Green. Webmaster, Tony Mann.
Eric Weisstein´s World of Scientific Biography: Listed by branch of science (including mathematics), gender, minority status, nationality, prizes won, or simply alphabetical. Site is copyrighted by Eric W. Weisstein and Wolfram Research, Inc.
History of Math Archive (MacTutor): The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Created and maintained by School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St Andrews, Scotland.
Math Archives (U of Tennessee): Links to several sites with information about the history of mathematics. Bibliographies, biographies, special topics in mathematics. Links arranged alphabetically.
Math Forum @ Drexel: Links to sites related to math history. Sites include biographies of men and women mathematicians, history of symbols and numbers, famous problems, and more. Sites listed alphabetically.
Mathematicians of the 17th and 18th Centuries: Biographies of the lives and works of seventeenth and eighteenth century mathematicians adapted from A Short Account of the History of Mathematics by W. W. Rouse Ball (4th Edition, 1908).
Wilkins. Trinity College, Dublin. Math History Links: Links to biographies, electronic texts, bibliographies, mailing lists. Maintained by David Wilkins of Trinity College, Dublin.
Women Mathematicians Biographies: "These pages are part of an on-going project by students in mathematics classes at Agnes Scott College, in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate the numerous achievements of women in the field of mathematics."


Handly High Math Department Humor Page: This link sends you to the home page of the math department at John Handly High School. Select "Math Humor" at the site and receive such options as jokes, comics, humorous proofs.
Math Forum Amusing Math Links: "The Forum´s Internet Mathematics Library provides a comprehensive database of links to Humor. Additional suggestions are offered through the Amusing Links hyperlinks."
Math NEXUS Humor of the Week: Weekly perspectives generated by Whatcom and Skagit Mathematics Partnership funded by the Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction and the U.S. Department of Education.
What You Know About Math?: DISCLAIMER: Effective Immediately, This video (What You Know about Math) is the sole property of its creators. It is meant for public viewing and not reproduction or personal gain. Any one wishing to use this video for any purpose must contact the creators.
World of Statistical Humor: Statistical jokes originally assembled by the late Dr. Gary C. Ramseyer and now maintained by his son.

Illumination & light

Digital Lighting: Syllabus of course by Matthew Lewis which "provides an introductory study of the mathematical models used in computer graphics to mimic the physical behavior of light in the generation of three-dimensional, computer-generated imagery.
The Math of Light: Calculator for measuring light consumption. Site part of
Light Science for Kids: Facts, demonstrations, and activities related to light and the Science associated with it. Part of site: Interior­


Cantor, Georg (1845-1918): Seton Hall University: Information about Cantor, his concept of infinity, and links to sites related to his theorems and other sites that deal with infinity.
Georg Cantor (1845-1918): The man who tamed infinity: PDF file of lecture delivered by Eric Schechter, Associate Professor of Mathematics, Vanderbilt University.
Infinity and Cosmology: Part of FAQ Astronomy site at UCLA. See "Is the Universe really infinite or just really big?" and "How can the Universe be infinite..."
Infinity, Self-Similarity and Recursion: Concepts from fractals, line segments, perimeter, area and infinity are used, and skill at pattern recognition. Copyright and maintained by The Shodor Education Foundation, Inc
Zeno´s Paradox: The Motionless Runner: Short but effective description from The Math Forum, Drexel University.
Zeno´s Paradox: the Tortoise and Achilles: Paradox related in story form. Copyright Math Academy Online, Platonic Realms.
Zeno´s Paradoxes: Background and development of the four paradoxes. Copyright by Nick Huggett. Part of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.


The Mathematics of Juggling (Beek and Lewbel): Article written in 1995 for Scientific American by Peter J. Beek and Arthur Lewbel about the mathematics of juggling.
Webber´s Juggling Online: Ball, Club, Ring, Anything Jugglers. All created by Dr. William Webber using LiveMath. Users may select the type of juggling to view, stop and start the animation. "Click on one of the Jugglers to get the interactive version.


Mathematical Knitting (Dr. Sarah-Marie Belcastro):  Information, research, and links related to Mathematical Knitting and Fiber Arts pages. Site maintained by Dr. Sarah-Marie Belcastro.
Lorenz manifold: Crochet and Steel: Dr. Hinke Osinga and Professor Bernd Krauskopf have crocheted the famous Lorenz equations using computer-generated instructions. A steel sculpture has been created by Dr Benjamin Storch Article with photos.
Mathematical Knitting: Site with patterns to knit mobius strips and klein bottles, links to other mathematics and knitting sites. Site maintained by Dr. Sarah-marie Belcastro

Launch angle
What is Optimal Launch Angle?: Examination of the assumption that 45 degrees is the optimal launch angle. Uses the path of a cannon ball to explore the concept.


Odds of Winning: "How Lotteries Work" by Karim Nice. This selection will show you how to calculate your odds of winning a lottery. The author also relates some history about lotteries and machines that select the numbers.

Magic squares Interactive Magic Square Game: A game in which the user creates a magic square. Choose from beginner, medium difficulty, and hard level. Instructions are included.
Daily Magic Square by Steven Pomeroy: Daily magic square. Also archives of past square puzzles. This math web site is authored by Steven Pomeroy and is part of her site Math
Making Magic Squares: Making Magic Squares by Francis E. Su. Part of site: Math Fun Facts. Teaches how to build a magic square and the math behind it.
Magic Squares: Math Forum @ Drexel University: What is a magic square, how to build one. Historical accounts of magic squares. Part of The Math Forum at Drexel University.
Multiplying Magic Squares by Allan Adler: A Math Forum Web Unit. Classroom activities, how to construct a magic square, exploring the mathematics.

Proof of a Magic Square by Llewellyn Falco: Proof of a Magic Square by Llewellyn Falco; ©Copyright Set Enterprises Inc. References a deck of SET® card

Wolfram Mathworld: Unsolved Magic Square Problem: "determine the number of magic squares of an arbitrary order". Also history and discussion of magic squares.

Metric units

Donna Roberts´ Metric Tutorial for New York Regents Exams: Three lessons, 1 practice set, and a teacher´s resources page. Lessons include conversions using ratio and proportion.
Metric Pages and Imperial Pages (French Property, Services and Information Ltd.): Conversion Tables for Length, Weight (mass), Temperature, Area, Volume, Mileage, Energy, Force, Power, Pressure. Also Metric Cooking converter, Clothing and shoe sizes converter, Currency converter. Site maintained by Doug Stewart of FPSI, Ltd.
Metric Program: NIST: Program sponsored by The National Institute of Standards and Technology, an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce´s Technology Administration.

Minorities & math

African American Scientists and Inventors: This pathfinder is to aid researchers in their search for information on African American Scientists and Inventors. Hosted by The iSchool at Drexel, College of Information Science and Technology, with support from the College of Information at Florida.
Blacks in Math: This web pages is maintained by Dr. Scott W. Williams, Professor of Mathematics and is brought to you by The Mathematics Department of The State University of New York at Buffalo. 300 years of mathematicians is listed.

Black Women in Math: History of Black Women in Mathematics. Also over 100 biographies of Black Women who have contributed to the mathematical sciences. Created by Dr. Scott Williams, Professor of Mathematics at The State University of New York at Buffalo.
Dr. Math: African-Americans: Many links to lists of Afro-American men and women who have become mathematicians and scientists. Scroll down the site to find active hyperlinks.
Minorities in Math and Science: Math Forum at Drexel. Links to sites related to Minorities in Math and Science.
Minorities in Math and Science: Created and Maintained by Dr. Scott Williams, Professor of Mathematics, The State University of New York at Buffalo.

Movies, media & math

Mathematical Fiction: List of mathematical fiction in literature, film, comics, and other mediums. List compiled by Alex Kasman (College of Charleston).

Math in the Movies: "A Guide to Major Motion Pictures with Scenes of Real Mathematics." Copyright by A. G. Reinhold.

The Math Guy on NPR: Select a broadcast date. Scroll down list for titles with "Math" in them. Interesting broadcast of math concepts, history, applications. Part of Weekend Edition on National Public Radio.


Fractal Music (Brothers Technology): History, examples, and audio file of fractals applied to music. Site maintained by Harlan J. Brothers of Brothers Technology, LLC.
Musical Wave Form Components: Sympathetic Vibratory Physics: "All wave forms are really a composite of discrete, unseen or occulted vibratory forces acting in concert. Graphic shows four different complex waveforms as being the result of other discrete forces. These forces being defined by frequency and amplit.

Nuclear fusion

Fusion Basics: The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL): What is fusion? Links to other readings. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory managed by Princeton University.
MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center: "The Plasma Science & Fusion Center (PSFC) is recognized as one of the leading university research laboratories in the physics and engineering aspects of magnetic confinement fusion." Site includes news, education, library, links, and directory.


Medical Schools with Math Requirements: List of Medical Schools and their math requirements. Site assembled from MSAR 2007-2008.
Medication Math for the Nursing Student: Written for Nursing Students. Practice test and answers. Links to a wide range of math (dimensional analysis) background needed for success in Nursing. Part of
Numeracy needs of the beginning registered nurse: This is a summary of the article sited on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website as Nurse Educ Today. 1996 Apr;16(2):137-43. L
Nursing Math: Math needed to translate orders, ratio and proportion, IV flow rates, metrics, percentages, more. Part of Teaching/Learning Center, Delta College, University Center, MI.
Pharmacology Math (U.S. Army): This subcourse is approved for resident and correspondence course instruction. It reflects the current thought of the Academy of Health Sciences and conforms to printed Department of the Army doctrine as closely as currently possible.


Caltech Quantum Optics: "Our primary concern is studying the quantum mechanics of open systems, in which (like the real world), dissipation tends to destroy interesting quantum states.”
Light and Optics Module: Lessons in light and optics by Steve Beeson, Arizona State University . Topics include Light, Reflection, and Refraction; Lenses, Mirrors, and Prisms; Color and the Spectrum; Optics in Nature; and other Supplementary Modules.
Optical Illusions & Visual Phenomena: Hands on optical illusions. Select from panels. Site created and maintained by Michael Bach, University of Freiburg, Germany.
Optics for Kids: Optical basics written for elementary school children by Bruce Irving, Optical Research Associates . Link to excellent site "Optical Discovery Kit" which goes into detail about various aspects of color, light, Holography, and other optics relate


World of Numbers: Site dedicated primarily to the study of palindrome numbers. Wide variety of topics: intro to palindromes, palindromic squares, cubes, patterns, more. Site is maintained by Patrick De Geest in Belgium


Physics Encyclopedia: Igor Ivanov´s Site: Past lectures and resources related to physics.
Physics Simulations: Maintained by the University of Colorado at Boulder.Includes circuits, static electricity, projectile motion, waves, more.


Birthdate and Pi: "This document will tell you where in PI your birthday first occurs, e.g. if you were born Feb 20th 1969 search for: 22069". The idea for the site came from Arthur Bebak (
Blatner´s Pi Book: Excerpts from the Joy of Pi by David Blatner. Site includes links to pi facts, the digits of pi, and pi facts.
Celebrate Pi Day (AMS): Resources from the American Mathematical Society.
Exploratorium Pi: Links to many sites related to the number pi: pi and music, pi and beads, pi and pie. See the digits of pi moving across the top of the screen.
History of Pi: History of Pi. Written by J J O´Connor and E F Robertson, St. Andrews University, UK.
Math with Mr. Herte: Several Pi Day activities created by a seasoned teacher and categorized into grade levels: elementary, middle school, and high school. Site is part of a web page by Mr. Herte who has been a teacher in Glen Cove, NY. since 1983.
New Pi Formula: Article by Victor Adamchik of Wolfram Research, Inc. and Stan Wagon, Macalester College. Focus is on work by David Bailey of NASA/Ames and Peter Borwein and Simon Plouffe.
World Ranking List of People Who Memorized Pi: Lists by number of digits, countries, amazing performances.


Math Forum Math & Poetry Collection: Websites containing studies of mathematical relationships found in the poetry of selected authors. Some sites include works of poetry illustrating specific elements of mathematics. Site is part of The Math Forum created by Swarthmore College.


Counting Poker Hands: A PDF file written by Tom Davis describing various hands of poker and how to calculate the number of poker hands of various types. Card suits are used and combination notation is utilized. Excellent introduction to application of combinations.


World Clock: Information about the World: Current time AND such information as the current number of marriages, divorces, cancer cases, HIV infections, Births, Deaths, and more. Created by

Prime numbers

Cryptographers and Prime Numbers: Essay focused on why cryptographers make heavy use of prime numbers posted By: Peter Pearson, Cryptologist, Uptronics Incorporated.
The Prime Pages: Prime number research. Links to a wide variety of resources related to prime numbers. Site is copyrighted and maintained by Chris Caldwell.
The UCLA Mersenne Prime: In August of 2008, a new Mersenne Prime number was discovered. This FAQ created and maintained by Edson Smith, Computing Resource Manager, UCLA Department of Mathematics.
Why Do People Find Prime Numbers?: From the ´Prime Pages´ list of frequently asked questions.


Cut the Knot: Interactive site with a wide variety of links related to many mathematical topics including proofs. Part of the author´s site "Cut the Knot". Copyright © 1996-2001 Alexander Bogomolny.
The Role of Proof: Research article by Annie and John Selden at Tennessee Technological University Mathematics Education Resources Co. Article focus is on how proofs are taught: pros and cons; suggestions. Topics include: proof and validation, memory and validation, more.
What are mathematical proofs and why are they important?: Article written by James Hurley University of Connecticut, Mathematics.


Rubik Cube History & Illustration: Historical recounting of solving every position of the Rubik Cube using computers (site has active graphics for illustration) and includes reference to “God's algorithm” which is related to the ways to solve a Rubik's Cube puzzle. Site was created by the joint efforts of Tomas Rokicki, a programmer from Palo Alto, California, Herbert Kociemba, a math teacher from Darmstadt, Germany, Morley Davidson, a mathematician from Kent State University, and John Dethridge, an engineer at Google in Mountain View


Mathematical Analysis Chiral Quark by Asao Arai, Hokkaido University, Japan: Rigorous mathematical model of the "so-called chiral quark soliton model (CQSM) in nuclear physics."
Quark Fractional Charge Indicates a Substructure by James Rees: "This article presents an explanation of the fractional charge of up and down quarks using group mathematics based on a quark substructure."


Aristotle’s Theory on the Mathematics of Rainbows: Article by Guillermo Bautista and video shows a modern analysis of the structure and the mathematics of rainbows.

Scientific notation

Scientific Notation Applications: Site maintained by University of Toronto, Mathematics Network.


NASA MATERIALS FOR EDUCATORS: Locate top-level sites for interesting topics, education pages for NASA missions and other hard-to-find pages that offer resources for educators.
The Mathematics of Space-Rendezvous (NASA Quest): This program addresses the basic mathematical operations of spacecraft rendezvous in Earth orbit. Aimed at Middle School Students.


Statistics: why study it? Video by the American Statistical Association with various women and men describing the value of Statistics in their fields.


Baseball Physics: A wealth of information related to the physics of baseball (and other sports). Site created by Professor Alan M. Nathan, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Math Forum @ Drexel: Math and Sports: Links to sites that range from the calculation of various sports statistics to the application of mathematics in various sports activities. The Math Forum is a research and educational enterprise of the Drexel School of Education, Drexel University.


Postage Stamps: Links to sites which display mathematical symbols or mathematicians on postage stamps.


Earliest Known Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: These pages are maintained by Jeff Miller, a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Florida.
Math Symbols: History of the origin of various math symbols. These pages are maintained by Jeff Miller, a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Florida.


George W. Hart Sculptor: Site that features the work of a "sculptor of constructive geometric forms". Photos and dialog by sculptor which describes some background about the geometry.
Jill Britton´s Symmetry and Tessellations Site: Interactive site with excellent activities to explore symmetry and tessellations.


Math Quilts: The MathQuilt web page is dedicated to providing a showcase for quilters around the world who find inspiration from the colorful world of tessellations, geometry, perspective and fractals. Page design by Rebecca Chaky.
Tessellation Resources: Online resources created by Professor Doris Schattschneider from Moravian College. The resources are divided between references (about tessellations and sources for illustrations) and computer software for creating tiling.
Tessellation Tutorials: Written by Suzanne Alejandre, this is an excellent site to learn about tessellations, the math and history behind them, and to follow some tutorials with color illustrations. This is a "Math Forum Web Unit".


Books and Shows (related to Math) : Reviews by AMS: This page contains pointers to reviews of books, plays, movies and television shows that are related to mathematics. Click on hyperlink when you arrive at the website. © Copyright: American Mathematical Society.

Chaos, Fractals, and Arcadia: An animated description of some of the mathematical ideas in Tom Stoppard´s play Arcadia. Written by Robert L. Devaney of Boston University.


Tides and Tide Prediction: Charting of tide data and harmonic analysis used to predict tides. Visit especially the "harmonic analysis" link. This tide site created by Tony Phillips Math Dept SUNY Stony Brook.
Tides On Line: Data about tides worldwide. Site sponsored by NOAA.


World Clock: Current local time at hundreds of locations around the world. User able to toggle to specific continents. Also have ability to enter current time in one city and obtain date and time at another world site.
World Time: WORLDTIME® is a service featuring an interactive world atlas, information on local time as well as sunrise and sunset times in several hundred cities, and a database of public holidays worldwide.

Universal constants

Fundamental Physical Constants: Fundamental Constants provided by The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) , an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
Numbers: Info about each number: Interesting facts about all the numbers from 1 to 9999. Created by Erich Friedman Associate Professor of Math at Stetson University.


Vectors: Math Forum: User-friendly interactive site. Introduction to vectors through pictures or using Geometers Sketchpad (download required). Written by Gene Klotz 11/28/95 and maintained by The Math Forum, a "research and educational enterprise of Drexel University.
Vectors: University of Guelph Physics Department: Excellent tutorial on elementary vectors. Site has complete explanations that are clearly written, diagrams, and simulations. Material © Department of Physics, University of Guelph.


Vision Mathematics: "At the University of Bologna, Dept. of Mathematics, our team works at the use of topology and geometry in robotic applications since 1988".


Meteorology Education and Training: MetEd is a free collection of learning resources for the geoscience community including descriptions of weather related topics: hurricanes, flooding, fire weather and more. © Copyright: The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
NOAA Numerical Weather Prediction: Rigorous description of several Numerical Weather Prediction models. Links to Sources of Model and NWP Training Information.
Numerical Modelling of Weather (Met Office): Describes numerical modelling, components of numerical modelling, and provides examples. Met is a United Kingdom Corporation that provides environmental and weather-related services.
Unisys Weather: The intent of this weather site is to provide a complete source of graphical weather information.


Association of Women in Mathematics: This site contains biographies, employer/employee job search, awards, a newsletter, and other resources.
Biographies of Women Mathematicians: "These pages are part of an on-going project by students in mathematics classes at Agnes Scott College, in Atlanta, Georgia, to illustrate the numerous achievements of women in the field of mathematics."
Women and Mathematics Resources: Books, Careers, and Grants Opportunities, K-12 Resources, Math History, Women and Mathematics, more.
Women in NASA: "The Women of NASA resource was developed to encourage more young women to pursue careers in math, science, and technology."


History of Math Words: These pages (and other links) attempt to show the first uses of various words used in mathematics. Research for these pages is ongoing. These pages are maintained by Jeff Miller, a teacher at Gulf High School in New Port Richey, Florida.
Mathwords: “This website is designed for math students who need an easy-to-use, easy-to-understand math resource all in one place. It is a comprehensive listing of formulas and definitions from beginning algebra to calculus. The explanations are readable for average math students, and over a thousand illustrations and examples are provided.” Site created and maintained by Bruce Simmons, Mathematics Department Clackamas Community College
Math words and some other words of interest: Site created and maintained by Pat Ballew.


Discrete Tomography (new algorithm for): Use of mathematics in Tomography, recovering binary images from their projections. Such a projection is an X-ray. Paper written by Rob Tijdeman (University of Leiden, The Netherlands) and Herman te Riele (University of Debrecen, Hungary).
Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Biomedical Imaging: Chapter 14 "A Cross-Cutting Look at the Mathematics of Emerging Biomedical Imaging" from Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Biomedical Imaging.


History of Zero: Article by: J J O´Connor and E F Robertson. Site maintained by School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Scotland
How was zero discovered?: Article written (November 19, 2002) for YaleGlobal by Nils-Bertil Wallin.
What is the origin of zero?: Scientific American article written about the history of Zero by Robert Kaplan, author and former professor of mathematics at Harvard University.